Jump to content

Agama (Hinduismo)

Gikan sa Bikol Sentral na Wikipedia, an talingkas na ensiklopedya

An Agamas (Devanagari: आगम, IAST: āgama) sarong koleksyon nin magkapirang literaturang Tantriko asin mga teksto kan mga eskwelahan na Hindu.[1] An termino literal na nangangahulogan nin tradisyon o "an naghilig," asin an mga tekstong Agama naglaladawan nin kosmolohiya, epistemolohiya, pilosopikong mga doktrina, mga presepto sa paghorophorop asin mga kaugalean, apat na klase nin yoga, mga mantra, pagtogdok nin templo, pagsamba asin mga paagi tanganing makamit an anom na kamawotan.[1][2] An kanonikal na mga tekstong ini yaon sa Tamil asin Sanskrito.[3][4][1] An mga Agama predominante sa South India alagad an Sanskritisado kan huri.[5]

An tolong pangenot na sanga kan mga tekstong Agama iyo an Shaiva, Vaishnava, asin Shakta.[1] An mga Agamikong tradisyon kun minsan inaapod na Tantrismo, maski ngane an terminong "Tantra" parati ginagamit sa espesipikong apod sa Shakta Agamas.[6][7][8] An literaturang Agama mahibog, asin kaiba an 28 Shaiva Agamas, 64 Shakta Agamas (pig'aapod man na Tantras), asin 108 Vaishnava Agamas (pig'aapod man na Pancharatra Samhitas), asin kadakol Upa-Agamas.[9]

Bakong malinaw an ginikanan asin kronolohiya kan Agamas. An iba igdi iyo an Vedic asin iba pa na bakong-Vedic.[10] Kaiba sa mga tradisyon iyo an Yoga asin Pansadiring Realisasyon na mga konsepto, kaiba sa nagkapira an Kundalini Yoga, asceticismo, asin mga pilosopiya na hale sa Dvaita (dualismo) pasiring sa Advaita (monismo).[11][12][13] An iba nagsusuherir na ini iyo an mga tekstong post-Vedic, an iba bilang mga pre-Vedic na mga komposisyon na napetsahan pabalik sa labi sa 1100 BCE.[14][15][16] An ebidensiang Epigrapo asin arkeolohiko nagsusuherir na an mga tekstong Agama nag-eeksister kan mga kabangaan kan ika-1 milenyo CE, sa panahon kan dinastiyang Pallava.[17][18]

Sinasabi kan mga iskolar na may mga nakasurat sa mga tekstong Hindu Agama na minalataw na isinisikwal an awtoridad kan mga Veda, mantang an ibang teksto nagsasabi na an saindang mga presepto naghahayag kan tunay na espiritu kan mga Veda.[19][20] An mga henera pangliteraryo makukua man sa tradisyon na ⁇ rama ⁇ ic (i.e. Buddhist, Jaina, etc.).[21][22] An tradisyon na Bali Hindu opisyal na inaapod na Agama Hindu Dharma sa Indonesya.[23]

Toltolan[baguhon | baguhon an source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Grimes, John A. (1996). A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3068-2. LCCN 96012383. pages 16–17
  2. Mariasusai Dhavamony (2002), Hindu-Christian Dialogue, Rodopi, ISBN 978-90-420-1510-4, pages 54–56
  3. Indira Peterson (1992), Poems to Siva: The Hymns of the Tamil Saints, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-81-208-0784-6, pages 11–18
  4. A Datta (1987), Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: A-Devo, Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 978-0-8364-2283-2, page 95
  5. Varadachari, Venkatadriagaram (1982). Agamas and South Indian Vaisnavism (in English). Prof. M. Rangacharya Memorial Trust. 
  6. Wojciech Maria Zalewski (2012), The Crucible of Religion: Culture, Civilization, and Affirmation of Life, Wipf and Stock Publishers, ISBN 978-1-61097-828-6, page 128
  7. Banerji, S. C. (2007). A Companion To Tantra. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-402-3
  8. Mariasusai Dhavamony (1999), Hindu Spirituality, Gregorian University and Biblical Press, ISBN 978-88-7652-818-7, pages 31–34 with footnotes
  9. Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4, pages 49–50
  10. PT Raju (2009), The Philosophical Traditions of India, Routledge, ISBN 978-81-208-0983-3, page 45; Quote: The word Agama means 'coming down', and the literature is that of traditions, which are mixtures of the Vedic with some non-Vedic ones, which were later assimilated to the Vedic.
  11. Singh, L. P. (2010). Tantra, Its Mystic and Scientific Basis, Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-8069-640-4
  12. Jean Filliozat (1991), Religion, Philosophy, Yoga: A Selection of Articles, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0718-1, pages 68–69
  13. Richard Davis (2014), Ritual in an Oscillating Universe: Worshipping Siva in Medieval India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-60308-7, page 167 note 21, Quote (page 13): "Some agamas argue a monist metaphysics, while others are decidedly dualist. Some claim ritual is the most efficacious means of religious attainment, while others assert that knowledge is more important."
  14. Guy Beck (1993), Sonic Theology: Hinduism and Sacred Sound, University of South Carolina Press, ISBN 978-0-87249-855-6, pages 151–152
  15. Tripath, S.M. (2001). Psycho-Religious Studies Of Man, Mind And Nature. Global Vision Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-87746-04-1
  16. Drabu, V. N. (1990). Śaivāgamas: A Study in the Socio-economic Ideas and Institutions of Kashmir (200 B.C. to A.D. 700), Indus Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-85182-38-4. LCCN lc90905805
  17. Richard Davis (2014), Worshiping Śiva in Medieval India: Ritual in an Oscillating Universe, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-60308-7, pages 12–13
  18. Hilko Wiardo Schomerus and Humphrey Palmer (2000), Śaiva Siddhānta: An Indian School of Mystical Thought, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1569-8, pages 7–10
  19. For examples of Vaishnavism Agama text verses praising Vedas and philosophy therein, see Sanjukta Gupta (2013), Lakṣmī Tantra: A Pāñcarātra Text, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1735-7, pages xxiii-xxiv, 96, 158–159, 219, 340, 353 with footnotes, Quote: "In order not to dislocate the laws of dharma and to maintain the family, to govern the world without disturbance, to establish norms and to gratify me and Vishnu, the God of gods, the wise should not violate the Vedic laws even in thought – The Secret Method of Self-Surrender, Lakshmi Tantra, Pāñcarātra Agama".
  20. For examples in Shaivism literature, see T Isaac Tambyah (1984), Psalms of a Saiva Saint, Asian Educational Services, ISBN 978-81-206-0025-6, pages xxii-xxvi
  21. Helen Baroni (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8239-2240-6, page 3
  22. Tigunait, Rajmani (1998), Śakti, the Power in Tantra: A Scholarly Approach, Himalayan Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-89389-154-1. LCCN 98070188
  23. June McDaniel (2010), Agama Hindu Dharma Indonesia as a New Religious Movement: Hinduism Recreated in the Image of Islam, Nova Religio, Vol. 14, No. 1, pages 93–111