Cleopatra

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Cleopatra VII Philopator
Photograph of an ancient Roman marble sculpture of Cleopatra VII's head as displayed at the Altes Museum in Berlin
The Berlin Cleopatra, a Roman sculpture of Cleopatra wearing a royal diadem, mid-1st century BC (around the time of her visits to Rome in 46–44 BC), discovered in an Italian villa along the Via Appia and now located in the Altes Museum in Germany.[1][2][3][note 1]
Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Reign51 BC to 10th or 12th August 30 BC (21 years)[4][note 2]
Suminunod kiPtolemy XII Auletes
Sinundan niPtolemy XV Caesarion
Co-rulers
IminundagEarly 69 BC
Alexandria, Ptolemaic Kingdom
Nagadan10 or 12 August 30 BC (aged 39)[note 2]
Alexandria, Egypt
Spouse
Isyu
Bilog na Pangaran
Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator
AmáPtolemy XII Auletes
InáPresumably Cleopatra VI Tryphaena (also known as Cleopatra V Tryphaena)[note 3]

Plantilya:Infobox hieroglyphsCleopatra VII Philopator (Ancient Greek: Κλεοπᾰ́τρᾱ Φιλοπάτωρ, translit. Kleopátrā Philopátōr;[5] 69 – 10 o 12 August 30 BC)[note 2] an huring aktibong namamahala kan e Ptolemaic Kingdom nin Ehipto, nabuhay na paraon kan saiyang aki na si Caesarion.[note 4] Siya sarong diplomatiko, komander kan hukbong dagat, linguista,[6] asin parasurat sa medisina.[7] Bilang miyembro kan Ptolemaic dynasty, siya sarong aki ni Ptolemy I Soter, sarong heneral na Macedonian Greek [note 5] asin kaiba ni Alexander the Great. Pagkagadan ni f Cleopatra, an Ehipto nagin probinsya kan Egypt became a province of the Imperyong Romano, na nagtapos sa Hellenistic period na uminabot kan puuon kan pamamahala ni Alexander (336–323 BC).[note 6] An saiyang tataramon iyo an Koine Greek asin siya an enot na Ptolemaic ruler na nakanuod kan lengguwahe nin Ehipto.[note 7]

Cleopatra and Caesar (1866), pininta Jean-Léon Gérôme
Ladawan kan reyna nin Ptolemaic, posibleng si Cleopatra, c. 51-30 BC,Brooklyn Museum[8]

Mga toltolan[liwaton | liwaton an gikanan]

  1. For further validation about the Berlin Cleopatra, see Plantilya:Harvtxt, Plantilya:Harvtxt, Plantilya:Harvtxt, and Plantilya:Harvtxt.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Theodore Cressy Skeat, in Plantilya:Harvtxt, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC. Plantilya:Harvtxt provides the same date as Skeat, while Plantilya:Harvtxt tepidly supports this, saying it occurred circa that date. Those in favor of claiming her death occurred on 10 August 30 BC include Plantilya:Harvtxt, Plantilya:Harvtxt, and Plantilya:Harvtxt.
  3. Sambiton an kasalaan: Imbalidong <ref> tatak; mayong teksto na ipinagtao para sa reperensiya na pinagngaranan na cleopatra v or vi
  4. Plantilya:Harvtxt and Plantilya:Harvtxt explain the nominal short-lived reign of Caesarion as lasting 18 days in August 30 BC. However, Duane W. Roller, relaying Theodore Cressy Skeat, affirms that Caesarion's reign "was essentially a fiction created by Egyptian chronographers to close the gap between [Cleopatra's] death and official Roman control of Egypt (under the new pharaoh, Octavian)," citing, for instance, the Stromata by Clement of Alexandria (Roller 2010).
  5. Plantilya:Harvtxt writes about Ptolemy I Soter: "The Ptolemaic dynasty, of which Cleopatra was the last representative, was founded at the end of the fourth century BC. The Ptolemies were not of Egyptian extraction, but stemmed from Ptolemy Soter, a Macedonian Greek in the entourage of Alexander the Great."
  6. Plantilya:Harvtxt notes that the Hellenistic period, beginning with the reign of Alexander the Great, came to an end with the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. Michael Grant stresses that the Hellenistic Greeks were viewed by contemporary Romans as having declined and diminished in greatness since the age of Classical Greece, an attitude that has continued even into the works of modern historiography. In regards to Hellenistic Egypt, Grant argues, "Cleopatra VII, looking back upon all that her ancestors had done during that time, was not likely to make the same mistake. But she and her contemporaries of the first century BC had another, peculiar, problem of their own. Could the 'Hellenistic Age' (which we ourselves often regard as coming to an end in about her time) still be said to exist at all, could any Greek age, now that the Romans were the dominant power? This was a question never far from Cleopatra's mind. But it is quite certain that she considered the Greek epoch to be by no means finished, and intended to do everything in her power to ensure its perpetuation."
  7. The refusal of Ptolemaic dynasty rulers to speak the native language, Late Egyptian, is why Ancient Greek (i.e. Koine Greek) was used along with Late Egyptian on official court documents such as the Rosetta Stone ("Radio 4 Programmes – A History of the World in 100 Objects, Empire Builders (300 BC – 1 AD), Rosetta Stone". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00sbrz3. Retrieved on 2010-06-07. 
  1. Raia & Sebesta (2017).
  2. Sabino & Gross-Diaz (2016).
  3. Grout (2017b).
  4. Burstein (2004), pp. xx–xxiii, 155.
  5. Hölbl (2001), p. 231.
  6. Bradford (2000), p. 13.
  7. Roller (2010), p. 1.
  8. Ashton (2001b), p. 164.