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Fentanyl

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Fentanyl
Gene therapy
Clinical data
Pronunciation/ˈfɛntənɪl/ or /ˈfɛntənəl/
Trade namesActiq, Duragesic, Fentora, others
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa605043
[[Regulation of therapeutic goods |Plantilya:Engvar data]]
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: C
Dependence
liability
High[1]
Routes of
administration
Buccal, epidural, IM, IT, IV, sublingual, skin patch
Drug classOpioid
Physiological data
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability92% (transdermal)
89% (intranasal)
50% (buccal)
33% (ingestion)
100% (intramuscular)/> 55% (inhaled)
Protein binding80–85%
MetabolismLiver, primarily by CYP3A4
Onset of action5 minutes[2]
Elimination half-lifeIV: 6 mins (T1/2 α)
1 hours (T1/2 β)
16 hours (T1/2 ɣ)
Intranasal: 6.5 hours
Transdermal: 20–27 hours[3]
Sublingual/buccal (single dose): 2.6–13.5 hours[3]
Duration of actionIV: 30–60 minutes[2][4]
ExcretionMostly urinary (metabolites, <10% unchanged drug)[3]
Identifiers
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.006.468 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC22H28N2O
Molar mass336.479 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Density1.1 g/cm3
Melting point87.5 °C (189.5 °F)
Data page
  (verify)

An fentanyl, sinusurat man bilang fentanil, sarong klase nin opioid na ginagamit pampawara nin kulog, siring man kan ibang bulong arog kan anesthesia. Ginagamit man ini bilang sarong recreational na droga, na pighahalo sa heroina o cocaine. Igwa ini nin marikas na epekto asin nagtatagal nin saro hasta sa duwang oras. Sa medisina ginagamit ini sa paagi nin injection, nasal spray, skin patch o pinapasagum sa may pisngi (transmucosal) bilang lozenge o tabletas.

Kabali sa pirang epekto kaini iyo an pagsuka, paglain kan tulak, pagkatungka, kawaran nin pokus, halusinasyon, asin mga kulog hawak o rungas dara kan maluyang koordinasyon kan hawak. [5] An seryosong epekto kaini iyo an pagluya kan hinangos (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, pagbaba kan pressure kan dugo, adiksyon, o kaya man coma.[5] Ini nag-eepekto sa paagi kan pag-aaktibar kan μ-opioid receptors.[3] Sanggatos na beses ining mas makusog sa morpina, asin kaagid man ini kan carfentanil asin siring na mas makusog pa nin 10,000 na beses.

An Fentanyl inot na ginibo ni Paul Janssen kan 1960 asin inaprubahan sa medikal na paggamit sa Estados Unidos kan taon 1968. Kan 2015, nasa 1,600 kilogramo (3,500 lb) an ginamit kaini sa healthcare sa intirong kinaban. [6] Hasta 2017, an fentanyl lakupan na ginagamit bilang synthetic opioid sa medisan. An Fentanyl patches para sa kulog dara kan cancer yaun nakalista sa World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[7] Kan 2016, an fentanyl asin analogoes saro sa pinakapirming rason kan pagkagadan huli sa panganang gamit sa Estados Unidos na nagsusuma sa 20,000, kabanga sa pagkagadan dara kan paggamit kan opioid. Kadaklan kan pagkagadan na ini dara kan ilegal na ginibong fentanyl.

Para sa 100 microgram na vial, an presyo kaini sa wholesale sa nagtatalubo pa sanang mga nasyun nag-aabot sa US$0.66 kan 2015. Kan 2017, an presyo kaini sa Estados Unidos nag-abot sa US$0.49 para sa nasabing sukol. Sa US, an 800 mcg na tableta mas 6.75 na beses na mas mahal sa lozenge puon pa kan 2020. Kan 2017, nasa ika-250 ini sa lista kan pirming ipigreresetang bulong sa Estados Unidos, na halos igwa nin 1.7 milyon na preskripsyon.

Toltolan[baguhon | baguhon an source]

  1. Bonewit-West, Kathy; Hunt, Sue A.; Applegate, Edith (2012). Today's Medical Assistant: Clinical and Administrative Procedures (in English). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 571. ISBN 9781455701506. Archived from the original on 2020-07-28. Retrieved 2020-08-06.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Clinically Oriented Pharmacology (2 ed.). Quick Review of Pharmacology. 2010. p. 172. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Fentanyl, Fentanyl Citrate, Fentanyl Hydrochloride". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 14 December 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  4. "Guideline for administration of fentanyl for pain relief in labour" (PDF). RCP. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 October 2015. Onset of action after IV administration of Fentanyl is 3–5 minutes; duration of action is 30–60 minutes.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Fentanyl Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com". https://www.drugs.com/sfx/fentanyl-side-effects.html. 
  6. Narcotic Drugs Estimated World Requirements for 2017 Statistics for 2015 (PDF). New York: United Nations. 2016. p. 40. ISBN 978-92-1-048163-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 October 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017. 
  7. World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771Freely accessible. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.