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Kalipato

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An kalipato o khilāfah (Arabic: خِلَافَة‎, Pagsayod sa Arabiko: [xi'laːfah]) iyo an institusyon o publikong opisina sa irarom kan pamamayo kan Islamikong steward na may titulo nin caliph[1][2][3] (/ˈkælɪf, ˈk-/; Arabic: خَلِيفَةPagsayod sa Arabiko: [xæ'liː'fæh], Manongod sa tanog na ini pronunciation ), sarong tawo na konsideradong sarong political-religious successor sa Islamikong propeta Muhammad asin sarong namamayo sa enterong Muslim world (ummah). Historically, the caliphates were polities based on Islam which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires.[4][5] Durante kan medieval period, tulong mayor na kalipato sinundan an kada saro: an Rashidun Caliphate (632–661), an Umayyad Caliphate (661–750), asin an Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258). Sa ikaapat na mayor na kalipato, an Ottoman Caliphate, an mga namamayo sa Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority poon kan 1517. Sa bilog na kasaysayan kan Islam, dikit na mga estadong Muslim, haros gabos na hereditary monarchies siring kan Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) asin Ayyubid Caliphate, have claimed na sarong kalipato.

An enot na kalipato, an Rashidun Caliphate, inistabilisar kaidtong 632 tulos-tulos pagkatapos kan pagkagadan ni Muhammad. Ini sinundan kan Umayyad Caliphate asin kan Abbasid Caliphate. An huring kalipato, iyo an Ottoman Caliphate, nag-eksister sagkod ini maabolished kaidtong 1924 kan Turkish Republic. Bako gabos na mga estadong Muslim nagkaigwa nin kalipato, and only a minority of Muslims recognize any particular caliph as legitimate in the first place. An Sunni na sangay kan Islam stipulates na, bilang pamayo kan estado, an sarong caliph dapat na elihido kan mga Muslim o an saindang representatives.[6] An mga tagasunod kan Shia Islam, minsan siring, nagtutubod na an caliph dapat na sarong Imam na pinili kan Diyos gikan sa Ahl al-Bayt (the "Household of the Prophet").

Kan amay na ika-21 siglo, sunod kan pagkadaog kan Arab Spring asin related protests, an iba nakikigsuhay para sa pagbabalik sa konsepto kan sarong kalipato tanganing urog na magkaburunyog an mga Muslim. An sistemang kalipato caliphate abolished sa Turkey kaidtong 1924 durante kan sekularisasyon kan Turkey bilang kabtang kan Atatürk's Reforms.

Toltolan[baguhon | baguhon an source]

  1. Hassan, Mona. “Conceptualizing the Caliphate, 632–1517 CE.” Longing for the Lost Caliphate: A Transregional History, Princeton University Press, 2016, pp. 98–141, http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1q1xrgm.9
  2. March, Andrew F. The Caliphate of Man: Popular Sovereignty in Modern Islamic Thought. Harvard University Press, 2019. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvp2n3ms.
  3. El-Hibri, Tayeb (2021). [[[:Plantilya:Google Books]] The Abbasid Caliphate: A History] Check |url= value (help). Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 284–285. ISBN 978-1-107-18324-7. Today the term "caliphate" nagkaigwa nin kahulugan sa journalistic na gamit an sarong porma nin politikal asin relihiyoso tyranny, an sarong fanatical na bersyon kan aplikasyon kan Islamikong ley, asin an pankagabsan na intolerence sa ibang faiths - saro pang interpretasyon, albeit an sarong distorted, sa kapinonan kan ika-duwampolo-saro na siglo. Posibleng ini magin kapakinabang to recall iyan na radikal na persepsyon kan termino float kadaklan sa kinaban kan media coverage asin harayo removed gikan sa aktwal na makasaysayan na realidad kan achievements kapag an kalipato nag-eksister sa medieval period. Kun kuanon ta an mas halawig na paghiling kan impluwensya kan opisina kan kalipato sa pagbabago sa komunidad na Islamiko, it may be worth noting that most of the dramatic social and legal reforms instituted by, for instance, the Ottomans in the 19th century were only feasible because of the ability of the sultan to posture as caliph. The Gulhane Reform of 1839 which established the equality of all subjects of the empire before the law, the reforms of 1856 which elimnated social distinctions based on religion, the abolition of slavery in 1857, and the suspension of the traditional penalties of Islamic law in 1858 would all have been inconceivable without the clout that the umbrella of the caliphate afforded to the office of the reforming monarch. 
  4. Al-Rasheed, Madawi; Kersten, Carool; Shterin, Marat (2012). Demystifying the Caliphate: Historical Memory and Contemporary Contexts. Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-19-932795-9. 
  5. Ringmar, Erik (2020). 4. The Muslim Caliphates. OBP collection (in English). Open Book Publishers. pp. 73–100. ISBN 978-1-78374-024-6. Retrieved 2022-04-07. 
  6. "The Roots of Democracy in Islam". Irfi.org. 16 December 2002. Retrieved 30 June 2014.