Rosa Parks

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Rosa Parks
Rosaparks.jpg
Si Rosa Parks kan 1955, kaiba si Martin Luther King Jr.
KamundaganRosa Louise McCauley
(1913-02-04)Pebrero 4, 1913
Tuskegee, Alabama, U.S.
KagadananOktobre 24, 2005(2005-10-24) (edad 92)
Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
Lulubngan
Woodlawn Cemetery, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
TrabahoAktibista nin sibil na diretsos
Midbid bilangMontgomery bus boycott
PaghiroCivil Rights Movement
LagdaRosa Parks Signature.svg

Si Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (Pebrero 4, 1913 – Oktobre 24, 2005) sarong amerikanang aktibista sa kaparatan kan katawohan na midbid sa pibotal niyang papel sa Montgomery bus boycott. An United States Congress inapod siyang "the first lady of civil rights" asin "the mother of the freedom movement".[1]

Kan Disyembre 1, 1955, sa Montgomery, Alabama, si Parks pigsayumahan an sarong drayber nin bus na si James F. Blake na sinabihan siyang itao an saiyang tukawan sa "colored section" sa pasaherong "puti" ta napano na an mga tukawan para sainda. Bako lang si Parks an enot na nagsayuma sa pagkakalaen kan mga pasahero sa bus, pero an National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) nagtutubod na siya an pinakamaray na kandidata para labanan an isyu kan "racismo" pakatapos siyang maaresto sa civil disobedience nin paglapas sa Alabama segregation laws. An saiyang kasikatan sa komunidad asin pagtugot na maging kontrobersiyal na tao sa komunidad kan mga itom nagpangyari na suportahan na boykoton an mga bus nin Montgomery sa lampas sarong taon, enot na aksyon sa kampanya sa post-war civil rights movement. An saiyang kaso nabasura sa hukumang estado mientras an pederal Montgomery bus lawsuit Browder v. Gayle nagtrayumpo kan November 1956.[2][3]

Layout kan bus kun saen nakatukaw si Parks, December 1, 1955
Rosa Parks c.1978

Toltolan[baguhon | baguhon an source]

  1. Pub. L. 106–26 (text) (PDF). Retrieved November 13, 2011. The quoted passages can be seen by clicking through to the text or PDF.
  2. González, Juan; Goodman, Amy (March 29, 2013). The Other Rosa Parks: Now 73, Claudette Colvin Was First to Refuse Giving Up Seat on Montgomery Bus. Democracy Now!. Pacifica Radio. 25 minutes in. Retrieved April 18, 2013. 
  3. Branch, Taylor (1988). "PARTING THE WATERS: America in the King Years". Simon & Schuster. Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  • Editorial. 1974. "Two decades later." New York Times (May 17): 38. ("Within a year of Brown, Rosa Parks, a tired seamstress in Montgomery, Alabama, was, like Homer Plessy sixty years earlier, arrested for her refusal to move to the back of the bus.")
  • Barnes, Catherine A. Journey from Jim Crow: The Desegregation of Southern Transit, Columbia University Press, 1983.
  • Rosa Parks with James Haskins, Rosa Parks: My Story New York: Scholastic Inc., 1992. ISBN 0-590-46538-4
  • Brinkley, Douglas. Rosa Parks: A Life, Penguin Books, October 25, 2005. ISBN 0-14-303600-9
  • The Rebellious Life of Mrs. Rosa Parks by Jeanne Theoharis, Beacon Press, 2015, ISBN 9780807076927
  • Morris, Aldon (Summer 2012). "Rosa Parks, Strategic Activist (sidebar)". Contexts 11 (3): 25. doi:10.1177/1536504212456178.