Carl Friedrich Gauss

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Carl Friedrich Gauss 1840 by Jensen.jpg
Portrait of Gauss by Christian Albrecht Jensen (1840)
KamundaganJohann Carl Friedrich Gauss
(1777-04-30)30 Abril 1777
Brunswick, Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Kagadanan23 Pebrero 1855(1855-02-23) (edad 77)
Göttingen, Kingdom of Hanover, German Confederation
NasyunalidadGerman
Alma materCollegium Carolinum, University of Göttingen, University of Helmstedt
Midbid bilangSee full list
Agom
  • Johanna Osthoff (1805–1809)
  • Minna Waldeck (1810–1831)
Mga aki
  • Joseph
  • Wilhelmina
  • Louis
  • Eugene
  • Wilhelm
  • Therese
Mga gawadLalande Prize (1809)
Copley Medal (1838)
Karera sa siyensya
LadoMathematics and sciences
InstitusyonUniversity of Göttingen
ThesisDemonstratio nova... (1799)
Doctoral advisorJohann Friedrich Pfaff
Academic advisorsJohann Christian Martin Bartels
Doctoral studentJohann Listing
Christian Ludwig Gerling
Richard Dedekind
Bernhard Riemann
Christian Peters
Moritz Cantor
Bantog na estudyanteJohann Encke
Christoph Gudermann
Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet
Gotthold Eisenstein
Carl Wolfgang Benjamin Goldschmidt
Gustav Kirchhoff
Ernst Kummer
August Ferdinand Möbius
L. C. Schnürlein
Julius Weisbach
Sophie Germain (correspondent as Monsieur Le Blanc)
NaimpluwensiyahanFerdinand Minding
LagdaCarl Friedrich Gauß signature.svg

Si Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (/ɡs/; Aleman: Gauß [kaʁl ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈɡaʊs] (Manongod sa tanog na ini dangogon);[1][2] ; Abril 30, 1777- Pebrero 23, 1855) sarong matematikong Aleman asin pisiko na nagtaong importanteng kontribusyon sa matematika asin siyensya.[3] Midbid na Princeps mathematicorum[4] (Latin for "the foremost of mathematicians") asin "the greatest mathematician since antiquity". Si Gauss igwang matibay na impluwensita sa Matematika asin Siyensya, asin kabali sa pinaka impluwensiyal na mga matematiko sa kasaysayan.[5]

German 10-Deutsche Mark Banknote (1993; discontinued) na pigtatampok si Gauss

Mga sinurat[liwaton | liwaton an gikanan]

  • 1799: Doctoral dissertation on the fundamental theorem of algebra, with the title: Demonstratio nova theorematis omnem functionem algebraicam rationalem integram unius variabilis in factores reales primi vel secundi gradus resolvi posse ("New proof of the theorem that every integral algebraic function of one variable can be resolved into real factors (i.e., polynomials) of the first or second degree")
  • 1801: Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (Latin). A German translation by H. Maser Untersuchungen über höhere Arithmetik (Disquisitiones Arithmeticae & other papers on number theory) (Second ed.). New York: Chelsea. 1965. ISBN 978-0-8284-0191-3. , pp. 1–453. English translation by Arthur A. Clarke Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (Second, corrected ed.). New York: Springer. 1986. ISBN 978-0-387-96254-2. .
  • 1808: Theorematis arithmetici demonstratio nova. Göttingen: Commentationes Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Gottingensis. 16. . German translation by H. Maser Untersuchungen über höhere Arithmetik (Disquisitiones Arithmeticae & other papers on number theory) (Second ed.). New York: Chelsea. 1965. ISBN 978-0-8284-0191-3. , pp. 457–462 [Introduces Gauss's lemma, uses it in the third proof of quadratic reciprocity]
  • 1809: Theoria Motus Corporum Coelestium in sectionibus conicis solem ambientium (Theorie der Bewegung der Himmelskörper, die die Sonne in Kegelschnitten umkreisen), Theory of the Motion of Heavenly Bodies Moving about the Sun in Conic Sections (English translation by C.H. Davis), reprinted 1963, Dover, New York.
  • 1811: Summatio serierun quarundam singularium. Göttingen: Commentationes Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Gottingensis. . German translation by H. Maser Untersuchungen über höhere Arithmetik (Disquisitiones Arithmeticae & other papers on number theory) (Second ed.). New York: Chelsea. 1965. ISBN 978-0-8284-0191-3. , pp. 463–495 [Determination of the sign of the quadratic Gauss sum, uses this to give the fourth proof of quadratic reciprocity]
  • 1812: Disquisitiones Generales Circa Seriem Infinitam
  • 1818: Theorematis fundamentalis in doctrina de residuis quadraticis demonstrationes et amplicationes novae. Göttingen: Commentationes Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Gottingensis. . German translation by H. Maser Untersuchungen über höhere Arithmetik (Disquisitiones Arithmeticae & other papers on number theory) (Second ed.). New York: Chelsea. 1965. ISBN 978-0-8284-0191-3. , pp. 496–510 [Fifth and sixth proofs of quadratic reciprocity]
  • 1821, 1823 and 1826: Theoria combinationis observationum erroribus minimis obnoxiae. Drei Abhandlungen betreffend die Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung als Grundlage des Gauß'schen Fehlerfortpflanzungsgesetzes. (Three essays concerning the calculation of probabilities as the basis of the Gaussian law of error propagation) English translation by G.W. Stewart, 1987, Society for Industrial Mathematics.
  • 1827: Disquisitiones generales circa superficies curvas, Commentationes Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Gottingesis Recentiores. Volume VI, pp. 99–146. "General Investigations of Curved Surfaces" (published 1965), Raven Press, New York, translated by J. C. Morehead and A. M. Hiltebeitel.
  • 1828: Theoria residuorum biquadraticorum, Commentatio prima. Göttingen: Commentationes Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Gottingensis. 6. . German translation by H. Maser
  • 1828: Untersuchungen über höhere Arithmetik (Disquisitiones Arithmeticae & other papers on number theory) (Second ed.). New York: Chelsea. 1965. pp. 511–533. ISBN 978-0-8284-0191-3.  [Elementary facts about biquadratic residues, proves one of the supplements of the law of biquadratic reciprocity (the biquadratic character of 2)]
  • 1832: Theoria residuorum biquadraticorum, Commentatio secunda. Göttingen: Commentationes Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Gottingensis. 7. . German translation by H. Maser Untersuchungen über höhere Arithmetik (Disquisitiones Arithmeticae & other papers on number theory) (Second ed.). New York: Chelsea. 1965. ISBN 978-0-8284-0191-3. , pp. 534–586 [Introduces the Gaussian integers, states (without proof) the law of biquadratic reciprocity, proves the supplementary law for 1 + i]
  • "Intensitas vis magneticae terrestris ad mensuram absolutam revocata". Commentationes Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Gottingensis Recentiores 8: 3–44. 1832.  English translation
  • 1843/44: Untersuchungen über Gegenstände der Höheren Geodäsie. Erste Abhandlung, Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften in Göttingen. Zweiter Band, pp. 3–46
  • 1846/47: Untersuchungen über Gegenstände der Höheren Geodäsie. Zweite Abhandlung, Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften in Göttingen. Dritter Band, pp. 3–44
  • Mathematisches Tagebuch 1796–1814, Ostwaldts Klassiker, Verlag Harri Deutsch 2005, mit Anmerkungen von Neumamn, ISBN 978-3-8171-3402-1 (English translation with annotations by Jeremy Gray: Expositiones Math. 1984)

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Citations[liwaton | liwaton an gikanan]

  1. Dudenredaktion; Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf (2015) [First published 1962]. Das Aussprachewörterbuch [The Pronunciation Dictionary] (in German) (7th ed.). Berlin: Dudenverlag. pp. 246, 381, 391. ISBN 978-3-411-04067-4. 
  2. Krech, Eva-Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz Christian (2009). Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch [German Pronunciation Dictionary] (in German). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 402, 520, 529. ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6. 
  3. "Gauss, Carl Friedrich". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 17 September 2018. 
  4. Zeidler, Eberhard (2004). Oxford Users' Guide to Mathematics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 1188. ISBN 978-0-19-850763-5. 
  5. Dunnington, Waldo (1927). "The Sesquicentennial of the Birth of Gauss". Scientific Monthly 24 (5): 402–414. Bibcode1927SciMo..24..402D. http://www.mathsong.com/cfgauss/Dunnington/1927/.  Also available at "The Sesquicentennial of the Birth of Gauss".  Retrieved 23 February 2014. Comprehensive biographical article.

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