Gera Sibil nin mga Amerikano

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Retrato kan gera sibil
CivilWarUSAColl.png
Clockwise from top:
Petsa April 12, 1861 – May 9, 1865
(Plantilya:Age in years and days)[lower-alpha 1][1]
Lugar United States, Atlantic Ocean
Kinaluwasan Union victory
Nagralabanan
US flag 34 stars.svg United States (Union) Plantilya:Country data Confederate States of America (Confederacy)
Komandante
Flag of the United States Abraham LincolnPlantilya:Assassinated
Flag of the United States Ulysses S. Grant
and others...
Plantilya:Country data Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis
Plantilya:Country data Confederate States of America Robert E. Lee
and others...
Kusog
2,200,000[lower-alpha 2]
698,000 (peak)[2][3]
750,000–1,000,000[lower-alpha 2][4]
360,000 (peak)[2][5]
Biktima
  • 110,000+ KIA/DOW
  • 230,000+ accident/disease deaths[6][7]
  • 25,000–30,000 died in Confederate prisons[2][6]

365,000+ total dead[8]

Total: 828,000+ casualties

290,000+ total dead

Total: 864,000+ casualties

  • 50,000 free civilians dead[9]
  • 80,000+ slaves dead (disease)[10]
  • Total: 616,222[11]–1,000,000+ dead[12][13]

An Gera Sibil nin mga Amerikano (1861-1865), na inapod man An Gera sa Pag'oltan kan mga Estado, sarong gera sibil nangyari sa Estados Unidos kan Amerika. Kagsarong (11) Habagatan na Estadong Oripnon an nagdeklara kan saindang paglitik sa Estados Unidos asin nagbilog kan inaapod na Confederadong Estado nin Amerika, bisto man sa pangaran na "the Confederacy". An namoon kaini iyo si Jefferson Davis. An Confederado naglaban patumang sa Estados Unidos ("an Kaburunyogan") na ini man inaandoyogan kan gabos na "talingkas na estado" asin kan limang estadong oripnon sa pagdolonan.

Kan mag'eleksyon kan taon 1860, an Partido Republikano, pinamayohan ni Abraham Lincoln, nagkampanya kontra sa paglakop kan kaoripnan sa luwas kan mga estadong dati nang praktis an pag'ooripon. An kapangganahan kan Republikano nagresulta sa pagsuway kan pitong Habagatan na estado na nagdeklara kan saindang paglitik sa Kaburunyogan maski dai pa ngane si Lincoln nasumpa komo presidente kan Marso 4, 1861. An pangyaring ini nin paglitik inapod asin pinaghiling kan si administrasyon na paluwas ni James Buchanan asin kan palaog na administrasyon ni Lincoln na bakong legal asin sarong hayag na pagtutumang.

Nagpoon an iriwal kan Abril 12, 1861, kan an pwersa kan mga Confederado piglusob an instalasyon militar yaon sa Fort Sumter sa South Carolina. Si LIncoln an ginibo nagpaapod nin mga boluntaryong hokbo hale sa lambang estado, na an siring na aksyon niya nagresulta man sa apat pang Habagatgan na oripnon na estado na maglitik. An duwang grupo nagbilog nin saindang mga hokbo manta an Kabunyogan (Union) kinaptan sa kontrol an mga estado nasa pagdolonan asin nagbugtak nin bagat sa kadagatan. Kan Septyembre 1862, an Proklamasyon nin Paglungkas ni Lincoln nagin osol sa pagpondo kan kaoripnan sa Habagatan bilang obhetibo kan gera. Ini man nagpaluya sa boot kan mga Ingles na magsahong-sahong sa gera.

An kumander na Confederado na si Robert E. Lee ginarana an mga batalya sa subangan, alagad kan 1863 si saiyang pagroso' pa'amnayan nasubak na dakul an nagkagaradan resulta kan si Batalya sa Gettysburg. Sa parteng solnopan, an Kaburunyogan nakontrol an Salog Mississippi kan saindang masikop an lugar kan Vicksburg, Mississippi na huli kaini nabaak an teritoryo kan Confederado sa duwa. Nagkaigwang bentahe an Kaburunyogan sa mga soldados asin materyal kan si Ulysses S. Grant daing ontok sa paglusob ki Lee manta an Heneral kan Kaburunyogan na si William Tecumseh Sherman natalikopan an Atlanta, Georgia hanggan nakaabot sa kasagkoran kan dagat.An pakitusay kan Confederado napondo kan si Lee nagsuko na sayod ki Grant sa Appomattox Court House kan Abril 9, 1865

Mga panluwas na takod[baguhon | baguhon an source]

Mga nota[baguhon | baguhon an source]

  1. Last shot fired June 22, 1865.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Total number that served
  3. 211,411 Union soldiers were captured, and 30,218 died in prison. The ones who died have been excluded to prevent double-counting of casualties.
  4. 462,634 Confederate soldiers were captured and 25,976 died in prison. The ones who died have been excluded to prevent double-counting of casualties.

Toltolan[baguhon | baguhon an source]

  1. "The Belligerent Rights of the Rebels at an End. All Nations Warned Against Harboring Their Privateers. If They Do Their Ships Will be Excluded from Our Ports. Restoration of Law in the State of Virginia. The Machinery of Government to be Put in Motion There". The New York Times. Associated Press. May 10, 1865. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "Facts". National Park Service. 
  3. "Size of the Union Army in the American Civil War": Of which 131,000 were in the Navy and Marines, 140,000 were garrison troops and home defense militia, and 427,000 were in the field army.
  4. Long, E. B. The Civil War Day by Day: An Almanac, 1861–1865. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971. Plantilya:OCLC. p. 705.
  5. "The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies; Series 4 – Volume 2", United States. War Dept 1900.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Fox, William F. Regimental losses in the American Civil War (1889)
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "DCAS Reports – Principal Wars, 1775 – 1991". dcas.dmdc.osd.mil. 
  8. Chambers & Anderson 1999, p. 849.
  9. Error sa pag-cite: Imbalidong <ref> tatak; mayong teksto na ipinagtao para sa reperensiya na pinagngaranan na StatsWarCost
  10. Professor James Downs. "Colorblindness in the demographic death toll of the Civil War". University of Connecticut, April 13, 2012. "The rough 19th-century estimate was that 60,000 former slaves died from the epidemic, but doctors treating Black patients often claimed that they were unable to keep accurate records due to demands on their time and the lack of manpower and resources. The surviving records only include the number of Black patients whom doctors encountered; tens of thousands of other slaves who died had no contact with army doctors, leaving no records of their deaths." 60,000 documented plus 'tens of thousands' undocumented gives a minimum of 80,000 slave deaths.
  11. Toward a Social History of the American Civil War Exploratory Essays, Cambridge University Press, 1990, page 4.
  12. Error sa pag-cite: Imbalidong <ref> tatak; mayong teksto na ipinagtao para sa reperensiya na pinagngaranan na recounting
  13. Professor James Downs. "Colorblindness in the demographic death toll of the Civil War". Oxford University Press, April 13, 2012. "A 2 April 2012 New York Times article, 'New Estimate Raises Civil War Death Toll', reports that a new study ratchets up the death toll from an estimated 650,000 to a staggering 850,000 people. As horrific as this new number is, it fails to reflect the mortality of former slaves during the war. If former slaves were included in this figure, the Civil War death toll would likely be over a million casualties ..."