Jihad

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Panahon kan mga Kalipa      Paglakop sa irarom ni Muhammad, 622–632/A.H. 1–11      Paglakop durante sa Kalipadong Rashidun, 632–661/A.H. 11–40      Paglakop durante sa Kalipadong Umayyad, 661–750/A.H. 40–129

An jihad (/ɪˈhɑːd/; Arabic: جهاد‎, translit. jihād [dʒɪˈhaːd]) iyo sarong Arabong taramon na may literal na boot-sabihon na "pagsakit" o "pakikibaka", urog na sa katuyohang marhay na pag-omaw.[1][2][3][4] Sa sarong Islamikong konstekto, pwede ining dapit sa kadaklan nin maski anong paghiro na makagibo nin personal asin sosyal na buhay konporme sa giya kan Kagurangnan, arug kan pakikipaglaban sa maraot na inklinasyon kan saro, proselitisismo, o paghiro pasiring sa moral na pagpamarhay kan Muslim na komunidad (Ummah),[1][2][5][6] alagad ini iyo harus pigsusugpon sa giyera.[4][7] Sa klasikal na Islamikong ley (sharia), an termino dapit sa armadong pakikipaglaban sa mga dae-paratubod,[2][3] mientras an modernistang Islamikong iskolar heneral na pigpaparehas an militaryong jihad sa depensibong pakikipaggiyera.[8][9] Sa Sufi asin banal na sirkulo, an ispiritwal asin moral na jihad iyo tradisyonal na pigpapahiling sa irarom kan ngaran na mas dakulang jihad.[5][10][3] An termino nakaguno nin dugang na atensyon sa dae pang nahahaloy na dekada sa paagi kan paggamit kaini kan mga nagkapirang mga insurhentong Islamikong ekstremista, militanteng Islamista, asin teroristang indibidwal asin mga organisasyon na an ideolohiya iyo nakabase sa Islamikong nosyon kan jihad.[5][7][11][12]

An taramong jihad iyo harus nagluluwas sa Quran nin igwa asin mayo nin militaryong konotasyon,[13] harus sa idyomatikong ekspresyon "pagsakit sa dalan kan Kagurangnan (al-jihad fi sabil Allah)".[14][15] An mga Islamikong hurista asin iba pang mga ulama kan Bulawang Panahon kan Islam iyo naintindihan an obligasyon kan jihad na predominante sa militaryonh paghiling.[16] Nakagibo sinda nin mga kasuguan na dapit sa jihad, kabali an mga prohibisyon sa pagtao nin peligro sa mga dae kabali sa paglaban.[17][18] Sa modernong panahon, an nosyon kan jihad nawara na an hurisprudensyal na importansya asin imbes nagtao nin pagsakat sa ideolohikal asin politikal na diskurso.[5][8] Mientras an mga modernistang Islamikong iskolar iyo pigtampok an depensibo asin dae-militaryong aspeto kan jihad, nagkapirang mga Islamista an igwang halangkaw na agresibong interpretasyon na lagpas sa klasikal na teorya.[8][12]

An jihad iyo nakaklasipika sa panlaog ("mas dakula na") jihad, na kabali an pagsakit laban sa sadiring basehang impulso kan saro, asin panluwas ("mas dikit na") jihad, na iyo dagos na nababanga pa sa jihad kan pansurat/dila (debate o persuasyon) asin jihad kan espada.[5][19][10] An kadaklan sa mga Solnopang parasurat iyo pigkokonsidera an panluwas na jihad na magkaigwa nin primasidad sa panlaog na jihad sa Islamikong tradisyon, mientras an kadaklan sa kontemporaryong Muslim na opinyon iyo pigpapaboran an kabaliktadang pagtanaw.[19] An dakulang surbey sa analisis kan Gallup iyo pigheras an konsiderableng pagkakaiba sa mga konsepsyon nin jihad kan mga Muslim sa bilog na kinaban.[20]

An jihad iyo minsan na pig-aapud bilang an ikaanom na harigi kan Islam, alagad an designasyon iyo dae harus pigbibisto.[21] Sa Twelver Shi'a Islam, an jihad iyo saro sa sampolong Praktis kan Relihiyon.[22] An personang kaiba sa jihad iyo inaapod na mujahid (darakulan: mujahideen). An terminong jihad iyo harus pigsasabi sa Ingles bilang an "Banal na Giyera",[23][24][25] alagad an pagpalis na ini iyo kontrobersyal.[26][27] Sa ngunyan, an taramong jihad iyo harus nagagamit nin mayong relihiyosong konotasyon, arug kan Ingles na crusade.[1][2]

Panluwas na takod[liwaton | liwaton an gikanan]

  • An diksyunaryong boot sabihon kan jihad sa Wiktionary
  • Mga relatibong Quotation para sa Jihad duman sa Wikiquote
  • Mga relatibong materyales nin pagkanood para sa Jihad duman sa Wikiversity

Toltolan[liwaton | liwaton an gikanan]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Jihad". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Peters, Rudolph; Cook, David (2014). "Jihād". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref:oiso/9780199739356.001.0001. ISBN 9780199739356. Archived from the original on 23 January 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2017.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Tyan, E. (1965). "D̲j̲ihād". In Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E. J.; Heinrichs, W. P.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. 2. Leiden: Brill Publishers. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0189. ISBN 978-90-04-16121-4. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Roy Jackson (2014). What is Islamic philosophy?. Routledge. p. 173. ISBN 978-1317814047. jihad Literally 'struggle' which has many meanings, though most frequently associated with war. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 DeLong-Bas, Natana J. (22 February 2018) [10 May 2017]. "Jihad"Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required. Oxford Bibliographies – Islamic Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/obo/9780195390155-0045. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2021.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  6. Gerhard Böwering, Patricia Crone, ed. (2013). "Jihad". The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Literally meaning "struggle,", jihad may be associated with almost any activity by which Muslims attempt to bring personal and social life into a pattern of conformity with the guidance of God. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Badara, Mohamed; Nagata, Masaki (November 2017). "Modern Extremist Groups and the Division of the World: A Critique from an Islamic Perspective". Arab Law Quarterly (Leiden: Brill Publishers) 31 (4): 305–335. doi:10.1163/15730255-12314024. ISSN 1573-0255. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Wael B. Hallaq (2009). Sharī'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). pp. 334–38. 
  9. Peters, Rudolph (2015). Islam and Colonialism: The Doctrine of Jihad in Modern History. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 124. doi:10.1515/9783110824858. ISBN 9783110824858. Archived from the originalPaid subscription required on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2017 – via De Gruyter.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  10. 10.0 10.1 Rudolph Peters (2005). "Jihad". In Lindsay Jones. Encyclopedia of Religion. 7 (2nd ed.). MacMillan Reference. p. 4917. 
  11. Cook, David (2015) [2005]. "Radical Islam and Contemporary Jihad Theory". Understanding Jihad (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 93–127. ISBN 9780520287327. JSTOR 10.1525/j.ctv1xxt55.10. LCCN 2015010201. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Jalal, Ayesha (2009). "Islam Subverted? Jihad as Terrorism". Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 239–240. doi:10.4159/9780674039070-007. ISBN 9780674039070.  Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  13. Al-Dawoody, Ahmed (2011). The Islamic Law of War: Justifications and RegulationsFree access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 56. ISBN 978-0230111608. Seventeen derivatives of jihād occur altogether forty-one times in eleven Meccan texts and thirty Medinan ones, with the following five meanings: striving because of religious belief (21), war (12), non-Muslim parents exerting pressure, that is, jihād, to make their children abandon Islam (2), solemn oaths (5), and physical strength (1). 
  14. Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and PracticeFree registration required. ABC-CLIO. p. 87. ISBN 978-0313360251. Retrieved 5 January 2011. 
  15. Josef W. Meri, ed. (2005). "Medieval Islamic Civilization". Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415966900. , Jihad, p. 419.
  16. Lewis, Bernard (11 June 1991). The Political Language of Islam. University of Chicago Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0226476933. . Cf. William M. Watt, Islamic Conceptions of the Holy War in: Thomas P. Murphy, The Holy War (Ohio State University Press, 1974), p. 143
  17. Bernard Lewis (27 September 2001). "Jihad vs. Crusade". Opinionjournal.com. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  18. Blankinship, Khalid Yahya (2011). "Parity of Muslim and Western Concepts of Just War". The Muslim World 101 (3): 416. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.2011.01384.x. ISSN 1478-1913. "In classical Muslim doctrine on war, likewise, genuine non-combatants are not to be harmed. These include women, minors, servants and slaves who do not take part in the fighting, the blind, monks, hermits, the aged, those physically unable to fight, the insane, the delirious, farmers who do not fight, traders, merchants, and contractors. The main criterion distinguishing combatants from non-combatants is that the latter do not fight and do not contribute to the war effort.". 
  19. 19.0 19.1 Bonner 2006, p. 13.
  20. Burkholder, Richard (3 December 2002). "Jihad – 'Holy War', or Internal Spiritual Struggle?". gallup.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
  21. Esposito, John L. (1988). Islam: The Straight PathFree registration required. Oxford University Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0195043983. 
  22. "Part 2: Islamic Practices". al-Islam.org. Archived from the original on 7 September 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  23. Lloyd Steffen, Lloyd (2007). Holy War, Just War: Exploring the Moral Meaning of Religious Violence. Rowman& Littlefield. p. 221. ISBN 978-1461637394. 
  24. cf., e.g., "Libya's Gaddafi urges 'holy war' against Switzerland". BBC News. 26 February 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8537925.stm. 
  25. Rudolph F. Peters, Jihad in Medieval and Modern Islam (Brill, 1977), p. 3
  26. Crone, Patricia (2005). Medieval Islamic Political Thought. Edinburgh University Press. p. 363. ISBN 0-7486-2194-6. OCLC 61176687. 
  27. Khaled Abou El Fadl stresses that the Islamic theological tradition did not have a notion of "Holy war" (in Arabic al-harb al-muqaddasa), which is not an expression used by the Quranic text or Muslim theologians. He further states that in Islamic theology, war is never holy; it is either justified or not. He then writes that the Quran does not use the word jihad to refer to warfare or fighting; such acts are referred to as qital. Source: Abou El Fadl, Khaled (23 January 2007). The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists. HarperOne. p. 222. ISBN 978-0061189036.