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Katha Upanishad

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Sarong pahinang manuskrito na nagpapahiling kan bersikulo 1.1.1 abot 1.1.3 kan Katha Upanishad, Krishna Yajurveda (Sanskrit, Devanagri script).

An Katha Upanishad (Sanskrito: कठोपनिषद् o कठ उपनिषद्) (Kaṭhopaniṣad) saro sa mukhya (primaryo) Upanishad, nakalaag sa huring walong halipot na seksyon kan eskwelahan nin Kaṭha Yajurveda kan Krishna Yajurveda.[1][2] Midbid man ini bilang Kāṭhaka Upanishad, asin piglista bilang numero 3 sa kan Muktika kan 108 Upanishad.

Binibilog an Katha Upanishad nin duwang kapitulo (Adhyāyas), na an kada saro binanga sa tolong kabtang (Vallis). Pigkokonsiderar an enot na Adhyaya na mas gurang pa na ginikanan kisa sa ikaduwa.[2] An Upanishad iyo an osipon na istorya kan sarong sadit na aking lalaki, si Nachiketa - aki ni Sage Vajasravasa, na namidbidan si Yama (an dios kan kagadanan). An saindang pakikipag-olay nakadepende sa pagtukar manongod sa naturalesa nin tawo, kaaraman, Atman (Sadiri) asin moksha (liberasyon).[2]

Bakong malinaw an kronolohiya kan Katha Upanishad, alagad kabilang sa nahuring bersikulo na Upanishads, na kaidto pang ika - 5 sagkod enot na mga siglo BCE.[3][4]

An Kathaka Upanishad sarong importanteng suanoy na corpus kan mga Vedanta sub-eskwelahan, asin sarong maimpluwensiyang Śruti sa manlaen-laen na eskwelahan nin Hinduismo. Pigsasabi kaini na an "Atman (Sadiri) an nag-eerok," nagtutukdo kan presepto na "hanapon Sadiring-kaaraman, na iyo an Pinakahalangkaw na Kaogmahan," asin pinapaliwanag sa premise na ini arog kan iba pang panginot na Upanishad kan Hinduismo. An detalyadong katukduan kan Katha Upanishad ininterpretar nin manlaenlaenaen na bersiyon, bilang Dvaita (dualistiko)[5] asin bilang Advaita (non-dualistic).[6][7][8]

Sarô ini sa mga may pinakamahiwas na inadalan na Upanishad. Trinadusir sa Persiano an Katha Upanishad kan ika-17 na siglo, na an mga kopya kaiyan trinadusir kaidto sa Latin asin idinistribwir sa Europa.[9] Inomaw iyan kan iba pang pilosopo arog ni Arthur Schopenhauer, trinadusir iyan ni Edwin Arnold sa bersikulo na "An Sekreto kan Kagadanan," asin si Ralph Waldo Emerson tinawan nin kredito an Katha Upanishad para sa pangenot na estorya sa katapusan kan saiyang komposisyon na Imortalidad, siring man an saiyang rawit na "Brahma".[6][10]

Toltolan[baguhon | baguhon an source]

  1. Johnston, Charles (1920-1931). The Mukhya Upanishads. Kshetra Books. ISBN 9781495946530 (Reprinted in 2014).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Paul Deussen. Sixty Upanishads of the Veda. Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-8120814684. pages 269-273
  3. Richard King (1995), Ācārya, Gauḍapāda - Early Advaita Vedānta and Buddhism: the Mahāyāna context of the Gauḍapādīya-kārikā, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2513-8, pages 51-58
  4. A.L. Basham in Paul Williams, ed., Buddhism: Buddhist origins and the early history of Buddhism in South and Southeast Asia. Taylor & Francis, 2005, ISBN 978-0-415-33227-9 (page 61).
  5. Ariel Glucklich (2008), The Strides of Vishnu: Hindu Culture in Historical Perspective, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-531405-2, page 70, Quote: "The Upanishadic age was also characterized by a pluralism of worldviews. While some Upanishads have been deemed 'monistic', others, including the Katha Upanishad, are dualistic. Monism holds that reality is one – Brahman – and that all multiplicity (matter, individual Selfs) is ultimately reducible to that one reality. The Katha Upanishad, a relatively late text of the Black Yajurveda, is more complex. It teaches Brahman, like other Upanishads, but it also states that above the 'unmanifest' (Brahman) stands Purusha, or 'Person'. This claim originated in Samkhya (analysis) philosophy, which split all of reality into two coeternal principles: spirit (purusha) and primordial matrix (prakriti)."
  6. 6.0 6.1 SH Nasr (1989), Knowledge and the Sacred: Revisioning Academic Accountability, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791401767, page 99, Quote: "Emerson was especially inebriated by the message of the Upanishads, whose nondualistic doctrine contained so lucidly in the Katha Upanishad, is reflected in his well known poem Brahma".
  7. Kathopanishad, in The Katha and Prasna Upanishads with Sri Shankara's Commentary, Translated by SS Sastri, Harvard College Archives, pages 1-3
  8. Olivelle 1996, p. Introduction Chapter.
  9. Philip Renard (1995), Historical bibliography of Upanishads in translation, Journal of Indian philosophy, vol 23, issue 2, pages 223-246
  10. R White (2010), Schopenhauer and Indian Philosophy, International Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 50, issue 1, pages 57-76