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Nirvana

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An Nirvana iyo an sarong konsepto sa mga relihiyon na Indyano (Budhismo, Hinduismo, Jainismo, asin Sikhismo) na nagrerepresentar sa ultimadong kamugtakan kan soteryolohikal na pagbuhi, liberasyon gikan sa duḥkha and saṃsāra.

Sa mga relihiyon na Indyano, an nirvana kasingkahulogan kan moksha asin mukti.[1] Gabos na mga relihiyon na Indyano inasigurar iyan na magin kamugtakan kan perpektong quietude, katalingkasan, pinakahalangkaw na kaugmahan siring man an liberasyon sa pagkakatakod asin kinabanon na pagdusa asin an katapusan kan samsara, an bilog na eksistensya.[2][3] Alagad, an mga tradisyon na Buddhist asin bakong-Budhist naglaladawan kan mga terminong ini para sa katalingkasan na iba man.[4] Sa Hindung pilosopiya, an pagkasararo o an pakarealisar kun siisay si Atman kaiba si Brahman, depende sa tradisyon na Hindu. Sa Jainismo, an nirvana man an soteryolohikal na katuyohan, na nagrerepresentar sa pagpaluwas nin kalag sa karmikong kaoripnan asin samsara.[5][6][7] Sa kontekstong Budhista, an nirvana nanonongod sa pakarealisar kan bakong sadiri asin emptiness, na tanda kan katapusan nin pagkamundag liwat sa paagi kan pagpadanay pa giraray kan mga kalayo na nagpapadanay kan proseso nin pagkamundag liwat.[4][8]

Toltolan[baguhon | baguhon an source]

  1. "The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism, vimoksha". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  2. Gavin Flood, Nirvana. In: John Bowker (ed.), Oxford Dictionary of World Religions
  3. Anindita N. Balslev (2014). On World Religions: Diversity, Not Dissension. SAGE Publications. pp. 28–29. ISBN 978-93-5150-405-4. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Loy, David (1982). "Enlightenment in Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta". International Philosophical Quarterly (Philosophy Documentation Center) 22 (1): 65–74. doi:10.5840/ipq19822217. "What most distinguishes Indian from Western philosophy is that all the important Indian systems point to the same phenomenon: Enlightenment or Liberation. Enlightenment has different names in the various systems – kaivalya, nirvana, moksha, etc. – and is described in different ways...". 
  5. Brian Morris (2006). Religion and Anthropology: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-521-85241-8. There has been some dispute as to the exact meaning of nirvana, but clearly the Buddhist theory of no soul seems to imply quite a different perspective from that of Vedantist philosophy, in which the individual soul or self [atman] is seen as identical with the world soul or Brahman [god] (on the doctrine of anatta [no soul] ... 
  6. Gwinyai H. Muzorewa (2000). The Great Being. Wipf. pp. 52–54. ISBN 978-1-57910-453-5. Even the Atman depends on the Brahman. In fact, the two are essentially the same. [...] Hindu theology believes that the Atman ultimately becomes one with the Brahman. One's true identity lies in realizing that the Atman in me and the Brahman - the ground of all existence - are similar. [...] The closest kin of Atman is the Atman of all living things, which is grounded in the Brahman. When the Atman strives to be like Brahman it is only because it realizes that that is its origin - God. [...] Separation between the Atman and the Brahman is proved to be impermanent. What is ultimately permanent is the union between the Atman and the Brahman. [...] Thus, life's struggle is for the Atman to be released from the body, which is impermanent, to unite with Brahman, which is permanent - this doctrine is known as Moksha. 
  7. John E. Cort (1990), MODELS OF AND FOR THE STUDY OF THE JAINS, Method & Theory in the Study of Religion, Vol. 2, No. 1, Brill Academic, pages 42-71
  8. Peter Harvey (2001). Buddhism. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 98–99. ISBN 978-1-4411-4726-4. [Nirvana is] beyond the processes involved in dying and reborn. [...] Nirvana is emptiness in being void of any grounds for the delusion of a permanent, substantial Self, and because it cannot be conceptualized in any view which links it to 'I' or 'mine' or 'Self'. It is known in this respect by one with deep insight into everything as not-Self (anatta), empty of Self.