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Tataramon na Yidis

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ייִדיש‎, יידיש‎, אידיש‎ or יודישע‎, yidish / idish
Subong saCentral, Eastern, and Western Europe
RehiyonEurope, Israel, North America, South America, other regions with Jewish populations[1]
SubongAshkenazi Jews
Subong na mga parataram
≤600,000 (2021)[2]
Amay na porma
Hebrew alphabet (Yiddish orthography)
occasionally Latin alphabet[5]
Opisyal na kamugtakan
Opisyal na tataramon sa
Binistado kan minoridad
tataramon sa
Sa regulasyon kanNo formal bodies
YIVO de facto
Mga kodigo nin tataramon
ISO 639-1yi
ISO 639-2yid
ISO 639-3yidinklusibong kodigo
Indibiduwal na mga kodigo:
ydd – Eastern Yiddish
yih – Western Yiddish
Linguaspero52-ACB-g = 52-ACB-ga (West) + 52-ACB-gb (East); totalling 11 varieties
Yiddish is classified as Vulnerable by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger (2023)[8]
The opening page of the 1828 Yiddish-written Jewish holiday of Purim play Esther, oder die belohnte Tugend from Fürth (by Nürnberg), Bavaria.

An tataramon na Yidis (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish o idish, Plantilya:IPA-yi, Plantilya:Lit.; ייִדיש-טײַטש, Yidish-Taytsh, Plantilya:Lit.)[9] iyo an tataramon na West Germanic pigtataram sa kasaysayan kan mga Ashkenazi Jews. Naggikan sa ika-9 na siglo na[10] Central Europe, nagtatao sa komunidad kan nascent Ashkenazi nin bernakular na basado sa High German sinalakan nin dakol na mga elemento na kinua gikan sa Hebreo (notableng Mishnaic) asin sa ibang extent Aramaiko. Kadaklan na baryedad kan Yiddish kabali an mga elemento kan tataramon na Slabiko asin an bokabularyo igwa nin mga gira kan mga tataramon na Romanse.[11][12][13] Yiddish is primarily written in the Hebrew alphabet.

Toltolan[baguhon | baguhon an source]

  1. Error sa pag-cite: Imbalidong <ref> tatak; mayong teksto na ipinagtao para sa reperensiya na pinagngaranan na e18
  2. Error sa pag-cite: Imbalidong <ref> tatak; mayong teksto na ipinagtao para sa reperensiya na pinagngaranan na 2021 stats
  3. Edited by Ekkehard König and Johan van der Auwera: The Germanic Languages. Routledge: London & New York, 1994, p. 388 (chapter 12 Yiddish)
  4. Sten Vikner: Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax: Verb Movement and Expletive Subjects in the Germanic Languages. Oxford University Press: New York & Oxford, 1995, p. 7
  5. Matthias Mieses: Die Gesetze der Schriftgeschichte: Konfession und Schrift im Leben der Völker. 1919, p. 323.
    Also cp. the following works, where certain works in Yiddish language with Latin script are mentioned:
    • Carmen Reichert: Poetische Selbstbilder: Deutsch-jüdische und Jiddische Lyrikanthologien 1900–1938. (Jüdische Religion, Geschichte und Kultur. Band 29). 2019, p. 223 (in chapter 4. 10 Ein radikaler Schritt:eine jiddische Anthologie in lateinischen Buchstaben)
    • Illa Meisels: Erinnerung der Herzen. Wien: Czernin Verlag, 2004, p. 74: "Chaja Raismann, Nit in Golus un nit in der Heem, Amsterdam 1931, ein in lateinischen Buchstaben geschriebenes jiddisches Büchlein."
    • Desanka Schwara: Humor und Toleranz. Ostjüdische Anekdoten als historische Quelle. 2001, p. 42
    • Edited by Manfred Treml and Josef Kirmeier with assistance by Evamaria Brockhoff: Geschichte und Kultur der Juden in Bayern: Aufsätze. 1988, p. 522
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Устав Еврейской автономной области от 8 октября 1997 г. N 40-ОЗ (с изменениями и дополнениями) Глава I. Общие положения. Статья 6.2 [Charter of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast N 40-ОЗ (with the Amendments and Additions of 8 October 1997): Chapter I. General situation. Article 6.2]". Сайт Конституции Российской Федерации [Site of the Constitution of the Russian Federation]. Garant. Archived from the original on 2015-02-21. Retrieved 2023-06-16. В области создаются условия для сохранения, изучения и развития языков еврейского народа и других народов, проживающих на территории области.  Unknown parameter |trans-quote= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  7. What languages does the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages apply to?
  8. "World Atlas of Languages: Eastern Yiddish". en.wal.unesco.org. Retrieved 2023-04-23. 
  9. Matras, Yaron. "Archive of Endangered and Smaller Languages: Yiddish". University of Manchester. humanities.manchester.ac.uk. Matres explains that with the emigration of Jews eastward into Slavic-speaking areas of Central Europe, from around the twelfth century onward, Yiddish "took on an independent development path", adding: "It was only in this context that Jews began to refer to their language as 'Yiddish' (= 'Jewish'), while earlier, it had been referred to as 'Yiddish-Taitsh' (='Judeo-German')."
  10. Plantilya:Harvcoltxt
  11. Baumgarten, Jean; Frakes, Jerold C. (June 1, 2005). Introduction to Old Yiddish literature. Oxford University Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-19-927633-2. 
  12. "Development of Yiddish over the ages". jewishgen.org. 
  13. Aram Yardumian, "A Tale of Two Hypotheses: Genetics and the Ethnogenesis of Ashkenazi Jewry". University of Pennsylvania. 2013.