Antoine Lavoisier

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Portrait of Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier and his Wife ni Jacques-Louis David (detalye)

Si Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (Pranses: [ɑ̃twan lɔʁɑ̃ də lavwazje] UK: /læˈvwʌzi/ lav-WUZ-ee-ay,[1] US: /ləˈvwɑːzi/ lə-VWAH-zee-ay,[2][3]; 26 Agosto 1743 – 8 Mayo 1794),[4] midbid man bilang Antoine Lavoisier pakatapos kan Rebolusyong Pranses, iyo sarong Pranses na nobleng tawo asin kimiko na sentro sa rebolusyong kimikal kan ika-18 na siglo asin iyo may dakulang impluwensya sa parehas na historya kan kimika asin historya kan biyolohiya.[5]

Heneral na pig-aako na an pinakadakulang akomplisimiyento ni Lavoisier sa kimika iyo gikan pangenot sa pagliwat sa siyensya hali sa kwalitatibo pasiring sa kwantitatibo. Si Lavoisier iyo pinakanotable para sa saiyang pagkadiskobre sa pagganap kan oksiheno sa kombustyon. Pigbisto niya asin pigpangaranan an oksiheno (1778) asin hidroheno (1783), asin piglabanan an teoryang phlogiston. Nagtabang si Lavoisier sa paghaman kan sistemang metriko, pigsurat an pinakaenot na ekstensibong listahan kan mga elemento, asin nagtabang sa pagreporma kan nomenklaturang kimikal. Nahulaan niya an ekstinsya kan silikon (1787)[6] asin nadiskobre na, alagad an materya pwede maliwat an porma o korte, an masa kaini iyo mantinido giraray.

Si Lavoisier iyo sarong makapangyarihang kaapil kan nagkapirang mga aristokratong konseho, asin sarong administrador kan Ferme générale. An Ferme générale iyo saro sa mga pinakahinahaboang komposisyon kan Ancien Régime huli sa mga dilensya na naguno kaini sa paggasto kan istado, an sekreto kan mga termino kan kontrata kaini, asin an pag-abuso kan mga armadong ahente kaini.[7] An gabos na mga politikal asin ekonomikong kasibotang ini an naggasto sa saiyang mga siyentipikong pag-aadal. Sa tuktok kan Rebolusyong Pranses, pig-akusahan siya dapit sa tax asin pagbenta nin pinagbabawal na tabako, asin pigbitay.

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  1. "Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. n.d. Retrieved 30 July 2019. 
  2. "Lavoisier". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 30 July 2019. 
  3. "Lavoisier". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 30 July 2019. 
  4. Lavoisier, le parcours d'un scientifique révolutionnaire CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
  5. Schwinger, Julian (1986). Einstein's Legacy. New York: Scientific American Library. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-7167-5011-6. 
  6. In his table of the elements, Lavoisier listed five "salifiable earths" (i.e., ores that could be made to react with acids to produce salts (salis = salt, in Latin)): chaux (calcium oxide), magnésie (magnesia, magnesium oxide), baryte (barium sulfate), alumine (alumina, aluminum oxide), and silice (silica, silicon dioxide). About these "elements", Lavoisier speculates: "We are probably only acquainted as yet with a part of the metallic substances existing in nature, as all those which have a stronger affinity to oxygen than carbon possesses, are incapable, hitherto, of being reduced to a metallic state, and consequently, being only presented to our observation under the form of oxyds, are confounded with earths. It is extremely probable that barytes, which we have just now arranged with earths, is in this situation; for in many experiments it exhibits properties nearly approaching to those of metallic bodies. It is even possible that all the substances we call earths may be only metallic oxyds, irreducible by any hitherto known process." – from p. 218 of: Lavoisier with Robert Kerr, trans., Elements of Chemistry, ..., 4th ed. (Edinburgh, Scotland: William Creech, 1799). (The original passage appears in: Lavoisier, Traité Élémentaire de Chimie, ... (Paris, France: Cuchet, 1789), vol. 1, p. 174.)
  7. Schama, Simon (1989). Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. Alfred A Knopf. p. 73.