Pilosopiya

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The School of Athens (1509–1511) ni Raphael, na nagpapahiling nin mga famosong klasikal na Griyegong pilosopo sa sarong ideyalisadong kasibotan na inspirado kan suanoy na Griyegong arkitektura

An pilosopiya (Ingles: philosophy, gikan sa Griyego: φιλοσοφία, philosophia, 'pagkamoot sa kadunungan' )[1][2][3] iyo an pag-aadal nin heneral asin pundamental na kahapotan, arug kaidtong manungod sa rason, eksistensya, kaaraman, kaugalian, pag-iisip, sagkod tataramon.[4][5] An mga arug kaidtong kahapotan iyo harus nagigin problema[6][7] na dapat adalan o maresolba. An termino iyo baad namokna ni Pythagoras (c. 570 – c. 495 BCE). An mga pilosopikal na paagi iyo kabali an paghapot, kritikal na diskusyon, rasyunal na argumento, asin sistematikong presentasyon.[8][9]

Sa historya, an pilosopiya iyo minasakop sa gabos na hawak nin kaaraman asin an may hararom na kaaraman sa lado iyo inaapod na pilosopo.[10] Gikan sa panahon kan suanoy na Griyegong pilosopo na si Aristotle hasta sa ika-19 na siglo, an "natural na pilosopiya" iyo minasakop sa astronomiya, medisina, asin pisika.[11] Halimbawa, an libro ni Newton kan 1687 na Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy iyo dagos pigklasipika bilang libro nin pisika.

Kaidtong ika-19 na siglo, an pag-uswag kan mga modernong research na unibersidad iyo nagtaong dalan sa akademikong pilosopiya asin iba pang disiplina para mapropesyunalisar asin maespesyalisar.[12][13] Poon kaidto, an manlainlain na lugar nin imbestigasyon na tradisyunal na parte kan pilosopiya iyo nagin suway na akademikong disiplina, arug kan sikolohiya, sosyolohiya, lingwistika, asin ekonomika.

Sa ngunyan, an mga mayor na sub-lado kan akademikong pilosopiya iyo kabali an metapisika, na iyo segun sa pundamental na katotoohan kan eksistensya asin realidad; an epistemolohiya, na minaadal sa katotoohan nin kaaraman asin pagtubod; an etika, na iyo segun sa moral na pag-aadal; sagkod an lohika, na minaadal sa kasuguan nin imperensya na minatugot sa paghimo nin konklusyon hale sa totoong premiso.[14][15] An iba pang notableng sub-lado iyo kabali an pilosopiya kan siyensya, politikal na pilosopiya, aestetiko, pilosopiya kan tataramon, asin pilosopiya kan pag-iisip.

Panluwas na takod[liwaton | liwaton an gikanan]

Toltolan[liwaton | liwaton an gikanan]

  1. "Strong's Greek: 5385. φιλοσοφία (philosophia) -- the love or pursuit of wisdom". biblehub.com. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2019.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  2. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
  3. The definition of philosophy is: "1. orig., love of, or the search for, wisdom or knowledge 2. theory or logical analysis of the principles underlying conduct, thought, knowledge, and the nature of the universe".
  4. "Philosophy". Lexico. University of Oxford Press. 2020. Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 28 March 2019.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  5. Sellars, Wilfrid (1963). Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind (PDF). Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd. pp. 1, 40. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2019. Retrieved 28 March 2019. 
  6. Chalmers, David J. (1995). "Facing up to the problem of consciousness". Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (3): 200, 219. http://www.consc.net/papers/facing.html. Retrieved on 28 March 2019. 
  7. Henderson, Leah (2019). "The problem of induction". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2019/entries/induction-problem/. Retrieved on 28 March 2019. 
  8. Adler, Mortimer J. (2000). How to Think About the Great Ideas: From the Great Books of Western Civilization. Chicago, Ill.: Open Court. ISBN 978-0-8126-9412-3. 
  9. Honderich, T., ed. (1995). The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-866132-0.
  10. "The English word "philosophy" is first attested to c. 1300, meaning "knowledge, body of knowledge." Harper, Douglas. 2020. "philosophy (n.) Archived 2 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine.." Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  11. Lindberg 2007, p. 3.
  12. Shapin, Steven (1998). The Scientific Revolution (1st ed.). University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-75021-7. 
  13. Briggle, Robert; Frodeman, Adam (11 January 2016). "When Philosophy Lost Its Way | The Opinionator". New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2016.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  14. "Metaphysics". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Archived from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  15. "Epistemology". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Archived from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)